coal, bio-fuel, fertilisers, catalytic depolymerisation, environmental pollution


Coal is an accessible, abundant, storage-safe and reliable resource, of which conversion into electric power is relatively simple. The impact that coal generates onto the environment encompasses air and water pollution and waste management. It is common knowledge that the direct burning of coal produces greenhouse gases and solid residues in the form of fly ash and flue gas desulphurisation sludge containing different toxins and / or heavy metals. However, coal can be used as raw material for producing liquid or liquefied-gas fuels. During the past years, the bio-fuels produced from organic raw materials, such as coal, wood and bio-mass, but also from biological, industrial and mineral waste, have been a reliable alternative to oil products. In the future, thanks to the new technologies, the bio-fuels may gradually replace the volumes of crude oil extracted from depleted deposits. Concurrently, the large quantity of existing waste is adequate, but not sufficient, for the production of synthetic oil, and as such, the difference may be covered by solid energy raw materials (coal), that are responsible for the greenhouse emissions. Due to high efficiency reasons, the interest in coal liquefaction (CTL – coal to liquid) or coal gasification technologies has currently increased in several countries where this resource is abundant. Under these circumstances, the paper focuses on the examination of a new technology placed on the market, a technology that promises an unparalleled potential world-wide for the energy policy in the field of waste management and optimum environmental protection. The authors also argue that the transfer of clean coal technologies, from the developed countries towards the developing countries, is, on one hand, the modern challenge faced by the coal and related industries, and, on the other hand, the answer to the main question: eco-development (sustainable development) or ecology (closure of the mines)?


coal, bio-fuel, fertilisers, catalytic depolymerisation, environmental pollution

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