Romania consumes approximately 14 billion cubic meters of gas annually. This quantity is ensured in proportion of 80% of the domestic production, the difference of 20% is imported – at very high prices, through intermediaries – from the Russian Federation. In the near future, shale gas will have a number of favorable geostrategic and geopolitical implications for Romania, in the sense that increasing self-sufficiency and energy security will improve storage capacity and, of course, the abandonment of the main foreign supplier–Russia. Thus, despite a more favorable forecast, shale gas could represent Romania’s energy independence and, obviously, lower bills, but there are concerns about the impact on the environment. In the paper, after a brief presentation of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits, the geographic and geological analysis of shale gas deposits in Romania is discussed. It also proposes specific programmes and technologies for drilling boreholes to exploit shale gas deposits, including a case study and environmental impact. In conclusion, it shows that Romania can become fully independent in terms of natural gas needs/demand and beyond by exploiting these fields. The authors, under the aegis the General Association of Engineers in Romania (AGIR), the Romanian Academy of Scientists (AOȘR) and the Romanian Academy of Technical Sciences (ASTR), of this paper offer a pass in the magazine of deposits unconventional, highlights potential shale gas resources on the territory Romania, which can describe the important role in the local energy sector and not only.